Napoleon II on his deathbedengraved by Franz Xaver Stöber, 1832
Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
Upon the death of his stepfather, Adam Albert von Neipperg, and the revelation that his mother had borne two illegitimate children to him prior to their marriage, Franz grew distant with his mother and felt that his Austrian family were holding him back to avoid political controversy. He said to his friend, Anton von Prokesch-Osten, “If Josephine had been my mother, my father would not have been buried at Saint Helena, and I should not be at Vienna. My mother is kind but weak; she was not the wife my father deserved“.
In 1831, Franz was given command of an Austrian battalion, but he never got the chance to serve in any meaningful capacity. In 1832, he caught pneumonia and was bedridden for several months. His poor health eventually overtook him and on July 22, 1832, Franz died of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. He left no issue, thus the Napoleonic claim to the throne of France passed to his cousin, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
, who later successfully restored the empire as Napoleon III
On 15 December 1940, Adolf Hitler ordered the remains of Napoleon II to be transferred from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. The remains of Napoleon I had been returned to France in December 1840, at the time of the July Monarchy. For some time, the remains of the young prince who had briefly been an emperor rested beside those of his father. Later, the prince’s remains were moved to the lower church.
While most of his remains were transferred to Paris, his heart and intestines remained in Vienna, which is traditional for members of the Habsburg house. They are in Urn 42 in the “Heart Crypt” (Herzgruft) and his viscera are in Urn 76 of the Ducal Crypt.